Causes of Head and Neck Cancer

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The main risk of developing head and neck squamous cell cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • alcohol consumption

Among never-smokers or light smokers, viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are common. HPV- related head and neck cancers often arise in the oropharyngeal area, whereas EBV-related head and neck cancers commonly arise  in the nasopharynx