Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer

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Tests and procedures used to diagnose endometrial cancer include:

  • Pelvic examination.
  • Using ultrasound waves to create a picture of the uterus. We may recommend a transvaginal ultrasound to look at the thickness and texture of the endometrium and help rule out other conditions. 
  • Using a scope to examine your endometrium. During a hysteroscopy, the doctor inserts a thin, flexible, lighted tube (hysteroscope) through your vagina and cervix into your uterus. A lens on the hysteroscope allows your doctor to examine the inside of your uterus and the endometrium.
  • Removing a sample of tissue for testing. To get a sample of cells from inside your uterus, you'll likely undergo an endometrial biopsy. This involves removing tissue from your uterine lining for laboratory analysis. Endometrial biopsy may be done in your doctor's office and usually doesn't require anesthesia.
  • Performing surgery to remove tissue for testing. If enough tissue can't be obtained during a biopsy or if the biopsy results are unclear, you'll likely need to undergo a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C). During D&C, tissue is scraped from the lining of your uterus and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

If endometrial cancer is found, you'll be referred to a doctor who specializes in treating cancers involving the female reproductive system (gynecologic oncologist).